The Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia (Polish: Rzeź wołyńska, literally: Volhynian slaughter; Ukrainian: Волинська трагедія- Volyn tragedy) were part of an ethnic cleansing operation carried out by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) North in the German Nazi-occupied regions of Volhynia (Reichskommissariat Ukraine) and UPA-South in Eastern Galicia (General Government) beginning in March 1943 and lasting until the end of 1944. The peak of the massacres took place in July and August 1943 when a senior UPA commander, Dmytro Klyachkivsky, ordered the liquidation of the entire male Polish population between 16 and 60 years of age. Despite this, most of the victims were women and children. The actions of the UPA resulted in 40,000-60,000 Polish civilian casualties in Volhynia, and from 25,000 to 30,000-40,000 in Eastern Galicia. Killings of civilian Ukrainians by Poles in Volhynia, East Galicia and Eastern Poland together, resulted in up to 20,000 deaths.